Hunter-gatherer lifestyle is increasingly unsustainable. Domestication Revolution begins in Fertile Crescent and the Americas. Migration wave of pastoral societies from steppe regions (generally between the Caspian and Black Seas) into the Fertile Crescent, India, and Europe.
Wheat, peas and olives domesticated in Fertile Crescent. State bureaucracy and military establishment are developed. The Pacific Northwest marine-based culture begins fully developing, from southern Alaska to Northern California. Intense deforestation of the region from Morocco to Afghanistan commences.
Intensive agricultural exploitation of imperial lands are undertaken to feed the empire.
Places such as today’s Libya are forced to become farms for Rome, with the agricultural practices eventually turning Libya into the desert nation it is today. Much of Palestine, Syria, Lebanon, and surrounding regions are deforested by Rome, eventually turning it into desert.
The Vikings’ violent ways quickly create resistance from the local Algonquin people, and their colonization is not permanent.
In Iceland, the Vikings are unable to easily plunder neighboring lands and quickly become a peaceful people, engaging in trade.
This essay was written during the USA's war against Iraq, which really began in 1990, and the essay was originally finished in the summer of 2002.The Greeks make the first heat-treated iron weapons. Themistocles, and later Pericles, rebuilds Athens into a great city.At its height, of its 200,000 inhabitants, only 50,000 were citizens (men). Rome begins rising as a power, eventually defeating the Etruscans of today’s northern Italy, and incorporate Etruria’s cultural and technical achievements.Agriculture collapses in central Mesopotamia due to soil salination. The anti-feminine culture of ancient Greece develops, known as Greece’s “dark age.” Women are gradually excluded from public life.Although male gods dominated Greek mythology, women were also present, if subservient.
Squash and pumpkins first domesticated in Mesoamerica. By this time, corn, potatoes, manioc, beans and turkeys are domesticated in the Americas. Today, only about 10% of that forest remains; much has turned to desert.