Dendral program (Edward Feigenbaum, Joshua Lederberg, Bruce Buchanan, Georgia Sutherland at Stanford University) demonstrated to interpret mass spectra on organic chemical compounds.First successful knowledge-based program for scientific reasoning.The first working AI programs were written in 1951 to run on the Ferranti Mark 1 machine of the University of Manchester: a checkers-playing program written by Christopher Strachey and a chess-playing program written by Dietrich Prinz. Simon (Carnegie Institute of Technology, now
Barbara Grosz (SRI) established limits to traditional AI approaches to discourse modeling.
Yorick Wilks (Stanford) developed the semantic coherence view of language called Preference Semantics, embodied in the first semantics-driven machine translation program, and the basis of many Ph D dissertations since such as Bran Boguraev and David Carter at Cambridge.
Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert publish Perceptrons, demonstrating previously unrecognized limits of this feed-forward two-layered structure.
Roger Schank (Stanford) defined conceptual dependency model for natural language understanding.
Later developed (in Ph D dissertations at Yale University) for use in story understanding by Robert Wilensky and Wendy Lehnert, and for use in understanding memory by Janet Kolodner.
Sacred mechanical statues built in Egypt and Greece were believed to be capable of wisdom and emotion.