Among the lower-ranked service and artisan castes are the Lohars, Tarkhans, and Chamars.
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries , the region was administered as a province of the Mogul Empire.In the northeast, the plain lies at just under 1,000 feet (about 300 meters) above sea level, but it declines to under 250 feet (75 meters) in elevation along the Indus River in the south.The hills bordering the plain are higher than 4,000 feet (1,200 meters) in the Shiwaliks and about 5,000 feet (1,500 meters) in the Salt Range. The average January temperature is 55° F (13° C ), although minimums drop close to freezing and hard frosts are common.The Punjab has also been one of the great crossroads of southern Asian history.Nomadic tribes speaking Indo-European languages descended from the mountain passes in the northwest to settle on the plains of the Punjab around 1700 .
In Pakistan, Punjabi is written using the Persian-Arabic script, which was introduced to the region during the Muslim conquests. Punjabi is spoken by two-thirds of the population of Pakistan.