The presence of bufotenine suggests that the source of the powder was any of several DMT-rich plants in the genus (Torres, Repke, Chan, Mc Kenna, Llagostera, & Schultes, 1991; Torres 1996).
Many psychoactive alkaloids accumulate in hair and other body tissues.
Much later in time, the site of Tiwanaku, recognized by Andean scholars as one of the most important precursors to the Inca Empire, flourished as the ritual and administrative capital of a major state power approximately between 7 AD.How in the world did indigenous peoples in the Upper Amazon come up with the idea of combining DMT with an MAO inhibitor? Archaeological finds in Ecuador show that the indigenous Amazons have been using it for about 5000 years.” Anthropologist Jeremy Narby (1998, p.154) states that ayahuasca “belongs to the indigenous people of Western Amazonia, who hold the keys to a way of knowing that they have practiced without interruption for at least five thousand years.” Anthropologist Peter Furst (1976; p.The hypothesis embraced by the authors of the study is that the likely source for the harmine in these two samples was the ayahuasca vine, which must have been imported, over some distance and rough terrain, from the Upper Amazon. The absence of 5-Me O-DMT in the hair samples would then indicate that the ayahuasca vine was consumed without the addition of a DMT-containing companion plant.
Sometimes, but rarely, the drink is made from the ayahuasca vine alone; almost invariably other plants are added.